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Author Topic:   Establishing the United States Space Force
Robert Pearlman
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posted 06-21-2017 08:28 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Lawmakers on Tuesday (June 20) took the first step towards establishing a 'Space Corps' within the Air Force — similar to the way the Marine Corps functions in the Navy — by drafting legislation that would require the new organization to be set up by January 1, 2019, reports SpaceNews.
The [House Armed Services Committee's strategic forces] subcommittee's top Republican, Rep. Mike Rogers of Alabama, and top Democrat, Rep. Jim Cooper of Tennessee, said the subcommittee's mark would require the Air Force to establish the Space Corps to serve "as a separate military service within the Department of the Air Force and under the civilian leadership of the Secretary of the Air Force."

"There is bipartisan acknowledgement that the strategic advantages we derive from our national security space systems are eroding," Rogers and Cooper said in a prepared statement. "We are convinced that the Department of Defense is unable to take the measures necessary to address these challenges effectively and decisively, or even recognize the nature and scale of its problems."

"Thus, Congress has to step in," the statement continues. "We must act now to fix national security space and put in place a foundation for defending space as a critical element of national security. Therefore, our Mark will require the creation, under the Secretary of the Air Force, of a new Space Corps, as a separate military service responsible for national security space programs for which the Air Force is today responsible. We view this as a first, but critical step, to fixing the National Security Space enterprise."

The Space Corp would be led by its own chief, who would sit on the Joint Chiefs of Staff with a six-year term, the bill says. It would be a position equal to the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, and would answer to the Secretary of the Air Force.

Robert Pearlman
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posted 06-23-2017 07:44 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson and Chief of Staff Gen. David Goldfein have said now is not the time to focus on a Space Corps, SpaceNews reports.
"If you're saying the word 'separate' and 'space' in the same sentence, I would offer you're moving us in the wrong direction," Goldfein said. "Every mission that we perform in the United States military is dependent on space. Now's not the time to build seems and segregate and separate, now's the time to further integrate."

Wilson agreed, arguing that at a time of sequestration and budget cuts, a reorganization is going to do more harm than good.

"The Pentagon is complicated enough," she said. "We're trying to simplify. This will make it more complex, add more boxes to the organization chart, and cost more money… I don't need another chief of staff and another six deputy chiefs of staff. We need to simplify, not make it more complicated."

House Armed Services strategic forces subcommittee chair Mike Rogers (R-Ala.) sharply criticized Wilson's and Golfein's response to the proposal.
"When I see arguments that we are actually going to set back efforts to respond to adversary space threats, well, as we say in Alabama, I'm pissed," Rogers said. "We're not easily provoked. But, since we've rolled out our mark with these reforms to the national security space enterprise, I have to say I've been shocked by the response by the Air Force leadership. Did they miss where the Chinese and the Russians have already reorganized their space operations? The Chinese literally have a space force today."

"The Air Force leadership would have us trust them again to get it right. They just need a few more years to rearrange the deck chairs," Rogers said. "This is the same Air Force that got us into the situation where the Russians and the Chinese are near-peers to us in space. We will not allow the status quo to continue."

Robert Pearlman
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posted 03-13-2018 07:48 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
"We have the Air Force. We'll have the Space Force," Trump said in a speech to U.S. Marines in San Diego on Tuesday (March 13), reports SpaceNews.
An idea that the Pentagon has long opposed — creating a separate military service dedicated to space warfare — suddenly is back in the headlines after President Trump endorsed it in a speech on Tuesday.

Addressing a military audience at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, in San Diego, Trump boasted about his national security strategy, plans to modernize the U.S. nuclear arsenal, develop hypersonic weapons, and his proposed increases to military budgets. Trump also made extensive comments about space and the possibility that the United States will need a "space force" to fight enemies that threaten U.S. access to space.

"In space, the United States is going to do Colonel Glenn proud," said Trump, invoking Astronaut John Glenn who was a Marine Corps pilot. "We are finally going to lead again. ... We're going to lead the way in space."

oly
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posted 06-19-2018 04:45 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for oly   Click Here to Email oly     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
With the news today that the current administration wants to create a Space Force, I am curious about why. With the Air Force having a history with space programs, would it not be more prudent to allocate the money that creating a new branch of the armed forces, including the infrastructure, administration, and a new office space in Washington D.C.?

I get the point about the administration wanting to have pre-eminence in the space defence sector, and U.S. voters wanting the government to “make America great again”, and I applaud the message being broadcast by the Administration regarding their vision for space, surely the money it would cost to induct a new branch could achieve more results by utilizing the existing assets and parties?

Editor's note: Threads merged.

space1
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posted 06-19-2018 05:53 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for space1   Click Here to Email space1     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
I agree with your concerns, oly. Also I wonder if there will be new turf battles between agencies.

dom
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posted 06-19-2018 05:56 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for dom   Click Here to Email dom     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
My reading of it is that either:
  1. Trump doesn't have a clue about spaceflight and just likes the idea of being in charge of a "Space Force."

  2. It's part of his nihilistic plan to disrupt the American established order.

  3. He's so touchy about nemesis Jeff Bezos that he wants a "space toy" of his own.
Discuss...

SpaceAholic
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posted 06-19-2018 06:59 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for SpaceAholic   Click Here to Email SpaceAholic     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Long overdue; good move by the administration

A service's responsibility under USC title 10 is to Man, Train, Equip and Organize. US Space Command and the Combatant Commanders (which already exist) are the organizations that would employ these forces.

The Space Force (like its sister services) would act as a proponent to resource capabilities for an increasingly contested war-fighting domain. Similar tensions existed in the '40s with the Army Air corp as operational dependencies on airspace grew. Either way Congress still needs to approve.

dom
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posted 06-19-2018 09:59 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for dom   Click Here to Email dom     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The right of such a capability for the US is not being debated — just the announcement by Trump. He probably really does have visions of laser troops like in the battle scene in the James Bond film "Moonraker"...

oly
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posted 06-19-2018 11:18 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for oly   Click Here to Email oly     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
My point is that for years, NASA, as an example, has operated under a budget, just as any government department does, and is expected to get the best value for the dollar possible. (Yes, I can hear the conjecture from here.)

Departments beg for funding for any new project, justify the existence of others, shut others down because they are not viable or required, and are repeatedly asked to streamline or become more efficient.

So creating a new arm will create positions already in existence within the other departments, like recruiting, supply, purchasing, and many other positions that have nothing to do with the unique skill sets needed for the "space" part of the operation. Just imagine how much time, money, paperwork etc., will go into deciding what uniform style, colour, fabric and dress code, what the flag and insignia should look like, and all the other paraphernalia.

In a time when many are screaming for taxpayer dollars to be spent wisely, all around the world, and when truly great business professionals are using practices that cut out duplication of practices and other methods of operating leaner and meaner, when politicians say governments should be run like businesses, and when NASA is called upon to seek international cooperation to find ways of using the ISS, and to get to Mars, would it not be wiser to say, while you're monitoring and maintaining the GPS network, while you're tracking space debris, while you're operating that space plane, while you're launching secret satellites and doing other things, have a few extra people and some more budget so you can do another project?

The building of the Space Force secret squirrel toys and infrastructure will create jobs, stimulate technology, look cool, scare the neighbours, and be the greatest space force ever. What does it matter if it is run by an existing arm of the DOD?

SpaceAholic
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posted 06-19-2018 12:50 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for SpaceAholic   Click Here to Email SpaceAholic     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
quote:
Originally posted by dom:
He probably really does have visions of laser troops...
Not inconceivable — future expeditionary capability may invoke a requirement for tactical operations to include visit, board, search, seizure of manned and unmanned spacecraft engaged in hostile action or postured to threaten U.S. interests.

dom
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posted 06-19-2018 04:03 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for dom   Click Here to Email dom     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
I fear you're not actually joking...

Chuckster01
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posted 06-19-2018 04:06 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Chuckster01   Click Here to Email Chuckster01     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
With the quick advancement in technologies and unfriendly actors (love that term) with malicious intent, space may well be the next international battleground.

As we become more dependent on satellites that enable our everyday activities, communications, infrastructure and power the commerce of our country a U.S. Space Force may in the long run be a necessity if not a forgone conclusion.

The destruction of a just a few orbital targets could cripple the U.S. as well as many of our allies.

dom
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posted 06-19-2018 04:09 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for dom   Click Here to Email dom     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
This step is literally counterproductive. The Russians and Chinese were only playing catch up with America and a smart President would have got them around the table and signed a treaty to freeze development of such weapons.

Robert Pearlman
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posted 06-19-2018 04:18 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
As noted earlier, this is a topic that has already been examined by Congress. The idea for a new division under the Air Force (let alone a separate service), was rejected by the Senate on the advice of the Pentagon. That speaks volumes as to the validity of a pressing need.

The President can say he wants a Space Force, but the proof will be in his FY2020 budget request. Unless he calls for an allocation to support its foundation, then it is nothing more than an applause line.

SpaceAholic
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posted 06-19-2018 04:38 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for SpaceAholic   Click Here to Email SpaceAholic     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
quote:
Originally posted by dom:
The Russians and Chinese were only playing catch up with America...
A perspective non-congruent with the 2018 National Intelligence estimate.
Foreign countries — particularly China and Russia — will continue to expand their space-based reconnaissance, communications, and navigation systems in terms of the numbers of satellites, the breadth of their capability, and the applications for use.

Both Russia and China continue to pursue antisatellite (ASAT) weapons as a means to reduce US and allied military effectiveness. Russia and China aim to have nondestructive and destructive counterspace weapons available for use during a potential future conflict. We assess that, if a future conflict were to occur involving Russia or China, either country would justify attacks against US and allied satellites as necessary to offset any perceived US military advantage derived from military, civil, or commercial space systems. Military reforms in both countries in the past few years indicate an increased focus on establishing operational forces designed to integrate attacks against space systems and services with military operations in other domains.

cspg
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posted 06-20-2018 09:40 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for cspg   Click Here to Email cspg     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
From Yahoo News:
Retired NASA astronaut Mark Kelly has lambasted President Trump's proposal to create a Space Force, saying the Air Force already does the tasks Trump is talking about and labeling the plan a "dumb idea."

"This is a dumb idea," Kelly wrote on Twitter. "The Air Force does this already. That is their job. What’s next, we move submarines to the 7th branch and call it the 'under-the-sea force?'"

p51
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posted 06-20-2018 10:26 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for p51   Click Here to Email p51     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
There's a great deal of redundancy for space operations within the DoD and the intelligence communities. It's streamlining issue more so than it is any serious attempt to militarize space.
quote:
Originally posted by dom:
I fear you're not actually joking...
I doubt he is. I can promise you that it's been long ago theorized, because I was involved in such a discussion with Special Operations Command (SOCOM) people when I was still active duty, but I can't give details more than that.

Robert Pearlman
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posted 06-20-2018 12:50 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
On Tuesday (June 20), in a letter to U.S. Air Force personnel obtained by Ars Technica, the Air Force's leadership responded to President Trump's proposal for a Space Force.
The letter — signed by Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson, Chief of Staff David L. Goldfein, and Chief Master Sergeant Kaleth O. Wright — noted that the president's announcement emphasizes the Air Force's important role in meeting potential adversaries in space and recognizes the significance of space as a warfighting domain.

The work to consider a Space Force, the letter said, will be: "a thorough, deliberate, inclusive process. As such, we should not expect any immediate moves or changes." Indeed, the creation of a new branch of the military can only be done at the direction of Congress.

To this end, the Air Force leadership promised its personnel that it would work with several groups on the president's proposal. "We look forward to working with Department of Defense leaders, Congress, and our national security partners to move forward on this planning effort," the letter states.

dom
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posted 06-20-2018 04:05 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for dom   Click Here to Email dom     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
"This is a dumb idea," Kelly wrote on Twitter. "The Air Force does this already. That is their job. What’s next, we move submarines to the 7th branch and call it the 'under-the-sea force?'"
My respect for astronaut Kelly has gone up.

p51
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posted 06-20-2018 04:59 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for p51   Click Here to Email p51     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
"The Air Force does this already. That is their job."
Kelly must not realize how much redundancy the government has in space right now. There's a great deal of it right now, split up among many DoD branches and other government agencies.

Military or intelligence/based, there is a huge need for one agency/branch to handle space as a potential place for conflict.

Frankly, Kelly would have to know this, so his quote to me only speaks to not thinking of that or decrying the fact at the Navy won't control space (my money would be on the latter, as I do know some within the Navy were not happy that the USAF wound up with a leading role in space, from an era where the Navy for a while dominated the manned space program and thought they're play a larger role in the warfighting portion of space operations).

Robert Pearlman
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posted 06-20-2018 06:58 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Why Trump's 'Space Force' Won't — and Shouldn't — Happen, from TIME's Jeff Kluger:
"Creation of a separate military service as a 'Space Force' is a solution in search of a problem," said Sean O'Keefe, former Administrator of NASA and currently a professor of citizenship and public affairs at Syracuse University, in response to the President's announcement. "There's no reason to believe that space-related programs would fare any better than they do today under the U.S. Air Force recognizance."

...humanity's savage and yet ingenious nature being what it is, there may well be a time when we have the tools for actual warriors to do battle in actual space. A space force then would then be a very good thing. But that time isn't now.

SpaceAholic
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posted 06-25-2018 10:08 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for SpaceAholic   Click Here to Email SpaceAholic     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The Pentagon's reluctance aside, does the United States need a space force? Some legislators and aerospace experts, citing growing threats from Russia and China, say a case could be made for one.
Representatives Mike D. Rogers, Republican of Alabama, and Jim Cooper, Democrat of Tennessee, have pressed hard for the idea in Congress. They argue that a new military branch is needed because the Air Force does not pay enough attention to outer space. What's more, they say, Russia and China are developing anti-satellite weapons that could imperil American satellites.

"We could be deaf, dumb and blind within seconds," Mr. Cooper, who sits on the House Armed Services Committee with Mr. Rogers, said in February at a space forum at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. "Seldom has a great nation been so vulnerable."

Cozmosis22
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posted 06-26-2018 01:19 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Cozmosis22     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Neil deGrasse Tyson on CNN recently said that President Trump's proposal to create a Space Force "is not a fundamentally flawed idea."

Robert Pearlman
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posted 07-24-2018 10:47 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The Fiscal Year 2019 National Defense Authorization Act omits the creation of a Space Force after reconciliation of the bill between the House of Representatives and Senate.
While the conference report adopts the House provision requiring creation of a U.S. Space Command within USSTRATCOM and addresses a number of other space issues, it does not require creation of a Space Force or Space Corps (or another alternative, a Space Guard similar to the Coast Guard).

The conference report does require the Secretary of Defense to develop a space warfighting policy and a plan that identifies joint mission-essential tasks for space as a warfighting domain (Sec. 1607).

Robert Pearlman
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posted 07-31-2018 07:35 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The Department of Defense will take the first steps to create the Space Force, despite it not yet being fully backed by Congress, reports DefenseOne.
In coming months, Defense Department leaders plan to stand up three of the four components of the new Space Force: a new combatant command for space, a new joint agency to buy satellites for the military, and a new warfighting community that draws space operators from all service branches. These sweeping changes — on par with the past decade's establishment of cyber forces — are the part the Pentagon can do without lawmakers' approval.

Creating the fourth component — an entirely new branch of the military with services and support functions such as financial management and facilities construction — will require congressional action. Defense officials plan to spend the rest of 2018 building a "legislative proposal for the authorities necessary to fully establish the Space Force." That would go to Congress early next year as part of the Trump administration's 2020 budget proposal.

This plan, developed for execution by Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan, the Pentagon's No. 2 civilian, is laid out in a 14-page draft report slated to go to lawmakers on Wednesday. Defense One reviewed a draft of the report dated July 30.

denali414
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posted 08-08-2018 03:47 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for denali414   Click Here to Email denali414     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Looks like the Space Force is gaining momentum. Saw four different op-ed pieces about it this weekend in various papers saying Trump really wants this.

Robert Pearlman
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posted 08-08-2018 04:43 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Vice President Mike Pence is expected to deliver remarks at the Pentagon on Thursday (Aug. 8) regarding the steps forward to establishing a Space Force. From SpaceNews:
A report that will put forth options for how to create a Space Force is expected to be out this week. It is now being reported that Vice President Mike Pence will share details of the reorganization on Thursday at the Pentagon. According to Fox News' Kristin Fisher, Pence will "specifically lay out the need for a Space Force and the next steps for its creation."

...Comments on Tuesday by Defense Secretary James Mattis were the closest to a direct endorsement of a Space Force that he has expressed thus far. "We are in complete alignment with the president's concern about protecting our assets in space that contribute to our security, to our economy," Mattis told reporters. "We need to address space as a developing warfighting domain and a combatant command is certainly one thing that we can establish," he said. "This is a process we're in."

Mattis noted that Pence is closely involved in the reorganization. "The vice president is kind of the point man for the president on this," Mattis said. "We are working closely, daily, with his office and with supporters on Capitol Hill and the relevant committees."

A reporter pressed Mattis to clarify whether he believes a Space Command is the same thing as establishing a separate service, as the president has ordered. "We are working our way through all this," he said. "I don't have all the final answers yet, we're still putting that together. ... We have the direction from the president and we're underway."

Robert Pearlman
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posted 08-09-2018 10:14 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
White House video

Robert Pearlman
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posted 08-09-2018 07:31 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The Pentagon spent approximately $219,000 to prepare the Final Report on Organizational and Management Structure for the National Security Space Components of the Department of Defense, as submitted to Congress on Thursday (Aug. 9).
Establishing a sixth branch of the Armed Forces requires Congressional action. This report outlines immediate steps by the Department of Defense to protect U.S. vital interests in space, including:
  • Accelerate space technology and anchor development initiatives to the modernization priorities outlined in the National Defense Strategy,

  • Establish a Space Development Agency, a joint organization charged with rapidly developing and fielding next-generation capabilities,

  • Establish a Space Operations Force of career space experts who are trained, promoted and retained as space warfighting professionals and who form a space community of engineers, scientists, intelligence experts, operators, strategists and more,

  • Establish an affordable and efficient operating structure with accountable civilian oversight to provide service and support functions for the Space Force,

  • Establish a new U.S. Space Command to improve and evolve space warfighting, including integrating innovative force designs, concepts of operation, doctrines, tactics, techniques and procedures.

Robert Pearlman
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posted 10-24-2018 08:38 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The National Space Council on Tuesday (Oct. 23) agreed to send President Trump a set of six recommended actions to initiate the process of establishing a new military branch for space, reports SpaceNews.
First is the creation of a new unified command for space command to be named U.S. Space Command. Second is a legislative proposal that the Pentagon will submit to the White House. Third is a budget request to fund the new service in fiscal year 2020. Fourth is a review of agencies' authorities to ensure space commanders are empowered to take action if necessary. Fifth is the establishment of a Space Development Agency to oversee technology investments. The sixth recommendation is to strengthen the relationship between the intelligence community and the new service.

The recommendations will be part of a new space policy directive, SPD-4, that will be sent to Trump's desk for approval in the coming weeks.

Robert Pearlman
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posted 12-18-2018 11:39 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The White House release
Text of a Memorandum from the President to the Secretary of Defense Regarding the Establishment of the United States Space Command

SUBJECT: Establishment of United States Space Command as a Unified Combatant Command

Pursuant to my authority as the Commander in Chief and under section 161 of title 10, United States Code, and in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, I direct the establishment, consistent with United States law, of United States Space Command as a functional Unified Combatant Command. I also direct the Secretary of Defense to recommend officers for my nomination and Senate confirmation as Commander and Deputy Commander of the new United States Space Command.

I assign to United States Space Command: (1) all the general responsibilities of a Unified Combatant Command; (2) the space‑related responsibilities previously assigned to the Commander, United States Strategic Command; and (3) the responsibilities of Joint Force Provider and Joint Force Trainer for Space Operations Forces. The comprehensive list of authorities and responsibilities for United States Space Command will be included in the next update to the Unified Command Plan.

Consistent with section 161(b)(2) of title 10, United States Code, and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, you are directed to notify the Congress on my behalf.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Robert Pearlman
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posted 02-19-2019 03:19 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The White House release
President Donald J. Trump is Establishing America's Space Force

Establishing the Space Force: President Donald J. Trump's Space Policy Directive 4 is a bold, strategic step toward guaranteeing American space dominance that sets the framework for establishing the United States Space Force.

  • Space Policy Directive 4 calls on the Secretary of Defense to develop a legislative proposal establishing the Space Force as the sixth branch of the Armed Forces.

    • The Space Force will initially be established within the Department of the Air Force.

  • The legislative proposal will embody President Trump's vision for the Space Force by requiring this new branch of the Armed Forces to:

    • Strengthen America's ability to compete, deter and win in an increasingly contested domain.

    • Organize, train and equip our space warfighters with next-generation capabilities.

    • Maximize warfighting capability and advocacy for space while minimizing bureaucracy.
A Vital National Interest: Our use of space is necessary to keep our country safe, protect lives, and support our way of life.
  • The United States is the best in space, and our adversaries know it.

    • Space is a key source of strategic advantage for the United States, and potential foreign adversaries are determined to restrict our access to it.

    • America has the most capable military in the world, but we must address the looming threats from foreign adversaries in space to maintain our leadership and outpace competitors.

  • America will always seek peace through strength, and we will work with our allies and partners to secure that peace in space.

    • United States space forces will be ready to win in a competitive multi-domain environment against increasingly competitive adversaries.
  • To meet and deter challenges in space, Space Policy Directive 4:

    • Launches a joint interagency review by the National Space Council and the National Security Council to recommend changes to space operational authorities in order to address the threats posed by foreign adversaries.

    • Requires the Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community to create collaborative mechanisms to improve space capabilities and operations.
Leading in a New Warfighting Domain: President Trump knows warfare is changing – space is now a warfighting domain just like the air, land and sea.
  • No branch of the Armed Forces has been created since the United States Air Force was established in 1947, more than 70 years ago. The world has changed significantly since then.

  • Establishing the Space Force is critical to preparing the Department of Defense for the evolving warfighting environments of the twenty-first century.

  • President Trump is dedicated to protecting the Nation and preparing America's military to deter and defeat threats in space.

Robert Pearlman
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posted 02-19-2019 03:23 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The White House release
Presidential Memoranda: Text of Space Policy Directive 4: Establishment of the United States Space Force

Establishment of the United States Space Force

Section 1. Introduction. Space is integral to our way of life, our national security, and modern warfare. Although United States space systems have historically maintained a technological advantage over those of our potential adversaries, those potential adversaries are now advancing their space capabilities and actively developing ways to deny our use of space in a crisis or conflict. It is imperative that the United States adapt its national security organizations, policies, doctrine, and capabilities to deter aggression and protect our interests. Toward that end, the Department of Defense shall take actions under existing authority to marshal its space resources to deter and counter threats in space, and to develop a legislative proposal to establish a United States Space Force as a sixth branch of the United States Armed Forces within the Department of the Air Force. This is an important step toward a future military department for space. Under this proposal, the United States Space Force would be authorized to organize, train, and equip military space forces of the United States to ensure unfettered access to, and freedom to operate in, space, and to provide vital capabilities to joint and coalition forces in peacetime and across the spectrum of conflict.

Sec. 2. Definitions. For the purposes of this memorandum and the legislative proposal directed by section 3 of this memorandum, the following definitions shall apply:

  1. The term "United States Space Force" refers to a new branch of the United States Armed Forces to be initially placed by statute within the Department of the Air Force.

  2. The term "Department of the Space Force" refers to a future military department within the Department of Defense that will be responsible for organizing, training, and equipping the United States Space Force.

  3. The term "United States Space Command" refers to a Unified Combatant Command to be established pursuant to the Presidential memorandum of December 18, 2018 (Establishment of United States Space Command as a Unified Combatant Command), that will be responsible for Joint Force space operations as will be assigned in the Unified Command Plan.
Sec. 3. Legislative Proposal and Purpose. The Secretary of Defense shall submit a legislative proposal to the President through the Office of Management and Budget that would establish the United States Space Force as a new armed service within the Department of the Air Force.

The legislative proposal would, if enacted, establish the United States Space Force to organize, train, and equip forces to provide for freedom of operation in, from, and to the space domain; to provide independent military options for national leadership; and to enhance the lethality and effectiveness of the Joint Force. The United States Space Force should include both combat and combat support functions to enable prompt and sustained offensive and defensive space operations, and joint operations in all domains. The United States Space Force shall be organized, trained, and equipped to meet the following priorities:

  1. Protecting the Nation's interests in space and the peaceful use of space for all responsible actors, consistent with applicable law, including international law;

  2. Ensuring unfettered use of space for United States national security purposes, the United States economy, and United States persons, partners, and allies;

  3. Deterring aggression and defending the Nation, United States allies, and United States interests from hostile acts in and from space;

  4. Ensuring that needed space capabilities are integrated and available to all United States Combatant Commands;

  5. Projecting military power in, from, and to space in support of our Nation's interests; and

  6. Developing, maintaining, and improving a community of professionals focused on the national security demands of the space domain.
Sec. 4. Scope.
  1. The legislative proposal required by section 3 of this memorandum shall, in addition to the provisions required under section 3 of this memorandum, include provisions that would, if enacted:

    1. consolidate existing forces and authorities for military space activities, as appropriate, in order to minimize duplication of effort and eliminate bureaucratic inefficiencies; and

    2. not include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Reconnaissance Office, or other non-military space organizations or missions of the United States Government.

  2. The proposed United States Space Force should:

    1. include, as determined by the Secretary of Defense in consultation with the Secretaries of the military departments, the uniformed and civilian personnel conducting and directly supporting space operations from all Department of Defense Armed Forces;

    2. assume responsibilities for all major military space acquisition programs; and

    3. create the appropriate career tracks for military and civilian space personnel across all relevant specialties, including operations, intelligence, engineering, science, acquisition, and cyber.
Sec. 5. United States Space Force Budget. In accordance with the Department of Defense budget process, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget a proposed budget for the United States Space Force to be included in the President's Fiscal Year 2020 Budget Request.

Sec. 6. United States Space Force Organization and Leadership.

  • The legislative proposal required by section 3 of this memorandum shall create a civilian Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space, to be known as the Under Secretary for Space, appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

  • The legislative proposal shall establish a Chief of Staff of the Space Force, who will be a senior military officer in the grade of General or Admiral, and who shall serve as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Sec. 7. Associated Elements.
  1. A Unified Combatant Command for space, to be known as the United States Space Command, will be established consistent with law, as directed on December 18, 2018. This command will have all of the responsibilities of a Unified Combatant Command in addition to the space-related responsibilities previously assigned to United States Strategic Command. It will also have the responsibilities of the Joint Force provider and Joint Force training for space operations forces. Moving expeditiously toward a Unified Combatant Command reflects the importance of warfighting in space to the Joint Force. The commander of this command will lead space warfighting through global space operations that may occur in the space domain, the terrestrial domains, or through the electromagnetic spectrum.

  2. With forces provided by the United States Space Force and other United States Armed Forces, the United States Space Command shall ensure unfettered access to, and freedom to operate in, space and provide vital effects and capabilities to joint and coalition forces during peacetime and across the spectrum of conflict.
Sec. 8. Relationship with National Intelligence. The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall create and enhance mechanisms for collaboration between the Department of Defense and the United States Intelligence Community in order to increase unity of effort and the effectiveness of space operations. The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall provide a report to the President within 180 days of the date of this memorandum on steps they have taken and are planning to take toward these ends, including legislative proposals as necessary and appropriate.

Sec. 9. Operational Authorities. In order to ensure that the United States Space Force and United States Space Command have the necessary operational authorities, the National Space Council and the National Security Council shall coordinate an accelerated review of space operational authorities. Within 90 days of the date of this memorandum, the Secretary of Defense shall present to the National Space Council and the National Security Council proposed relevant authority changes for the President's approval. The National Space Council and the National Security Council shall then conduct an interagency review of the Secretary's proposal and make recommendations to the President on appropriate authorities, to be completed no later than 60 days from the date the Secretary of Defense presents his proposal to the councils.

Sec. 10. Periodic Review. As the United States Space Force matures, and as national security requires, it will become necessary to create a separate military department, to be known as the Department of the Space Force. This department will take over some or all responsibilities for the United States Space Force from the Department of the Air Force. The Secretary of Defense will conduct periodic reviews to determine when to recommend that the President seek legislation to establish such a department.

Sec. 11. General Provisions.

  1. Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

    1. the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

    2. the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

  2. This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and United States national and homeland security requirements, and subject to the availability of appropriations.

  3. This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

  4. The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Robert Pearlman
Editor

Posts: 41652
From: Houston, TX
Registered: Nov 1999

posted 03-28-2019 04:47 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
President Trump on Tuesday (March 26) nominated Air Force Gen. John W. "Jay" Raymond to be the commander of U.S. Space Command, a new unified combatant command that will focus on space operations and war doctrine.
Raymond is currently the commander of Air Force Space Command, based at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. If confirmed by the Senate to run U.S. Space Command, Raymond would be dual-hatted and retain the title of Air Force Space Commander.

Trump on Dec. 18 directed the Department of Defense to establish a United States Space Command as a "functional Unified Combatant Command." He also directed the secretary of defense to recommend officers for nomination and Senate confirmation. Raymond was seen as a shoo-in for the position because of his extensive experience organizing, training and equipping space forces.

SpaceAholic
Member

Posts: 4330
From: Sierra Vista, Arizona
Registered: Nov 1999

posted 03-28-2019 09:04 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for SpaceAholic   Click Here to Email SpaceAholic     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Important to note that unified commands like SPACECOM operate under USC Title X combatant command (COCOM) authority. They are not chartered with man/train/equip organize functions; the Services perform those.

Space Force when established/authorized by Congress would be a separate entity responsible for the man, train, equip piece and provide ready forces to SPACECOM for mission execution.

Robert Pearlman
Editor

Posts: 41652
From: Houston, TX
Registered: Nov 1999

posted 05-16-2019 05:39 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
U.S. Air Force release
Air Force announces basing candidates for US Combatant Command for Space

The secretary of the Air Force selected six locations as candidate bases to potentially host the headquarters for United States Space Command.

This combatant command was approved by the U.S. Congress in 2018 and in December 2018 the President of the United States directed its establishment as the eleventh functional Unified Combatant Command.

The candidate locations are:

  • Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado
  • Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, Colorado
  • Peterson AFB, Colorado
  • Redstone Arsenal, Alabama
  • Schriever AFB, Colorado
  • Vandenberg AFB, California
The next step will be to complete site surveys and analysis of each candidate location for its ability to meet mission requirements, capacity, environmental impact and cost criteria.

The Air Force expects to approve the preferred location during the summer of 2019, which will be followed by an environmental analysis.

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