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Author Topic:   Nuclear power plants for moon and Mars

Posts: 5092
From: Sierra Vista, Arizona
Registered: Nov 1999

posted 07-24-2020 08:19 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for SpaceAholic   Click Here to Email SpaceAholic     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
The U.S. Department of Energy put out the formal request to build what it calls a fission surface power system that could allow humans to live for long periods in harsh space environments.
The plan has two phases. The first is developing a reactor design. The second is building a test reactor, a second reactor be sent to the moon, and developing a flight system and lander that can transport the reactor to the moon. The goal is to have a reactor, flight system and lander ready to go by the end of 2026.

The reactor must be able to generate an uninterrupted electricity output of at least 10 kilowatts.

Robert Pearlman

Posts: 48563
From: Houston, TX
Registered: Nov 1999

posted 07-24-2020 08:57 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
U.S. Department of Energy release
Request for Information Fission Surface Power

A reliable, durable energy source is a crucial element to enable the long-duration exploration of space and allow sustainable human presence in the harsh space environment. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), management and operating contractor of the Idaho National Laboratory, in collaboration with the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), puts forth this request for information (RFI) on innovative technologies and approaches for preliminary designs of a fission surface power (FSP) system to test and validate operation on the Moon.

This RFI will inform a subsequent request for proposals (RFP) for Phase 1, which will culminate with a preliminary design of a FSP engineering demonstration unit (FSP-EDU). NASA intends to sponsor a second competitive procurement for Phase II, which will include a final FSP design together with manufacturing, construction, and ground testing of a prototype FSP-EDU. Phase II will culminate with an additional test-qualified FSP flight system (FSP-FS) delivered to the launch site for deployment to the Moon. The RFI seeks responses from industry manufacturers and partnerships capable of designing, building, and operating the FSP-EDU and FSP-FS. The prototype FSP-EDU will resemble to the greatest extent practicable all aspects and features of an actual subsequent FSP-FS for deployment to the Moon, which must include extensibility to Mars.

Additionally, this RFI seeks responses which clearly detail specific technology maturation challenges, development risks, and tradeoffs associated with leveraging mature technologies versus developing nascent technologies. NASA, DOE, and BEA plan to take advantage of industry's engineering design processes and practices throughout Phase I and Phase II, and will establish performance metrics for demonstrated operational reliability and robustness. BEA recommends that respondents consider forming partnerships to provide fully informed industry responses. The planned solicitation presumes industry partnerships will need to be formed with sources that have demonstrated capabilities in nuclear energy, power conversion systems and radiators and space flight hardware systems development, integration, launch and operation.

NASA, DOE, and BEA anticipate hosting a Government-Industry technical meeting via webcast in August 2020, an "Industry Day," to facilitate further communications regarding the expectations of the complete program to develop and demonstrate the FSP-EDU and final FSP-FS for deployment to the Moon.


As space exploration operations go further and for longer periods of time, it is crucial that NASA provide energy sources that are more durable, resilient, and reliable than ever before. Small nuclear reactors can provide the power capability necessary for space exploration missions of interest to the Federal government. NASA, through the Nuclear Fission Power Project, has identified the need for a FSP system to provide reliable, durable energy for an installation on the Moon. The NASA Glenn Research Center under the auspices of the Space Technology Mission Directorate's Technology Demonstration Mission Program Office manages the Nuclear Fission Power Project and the development of a lunar FSP as a technology demonstration mission.

It is critical that the FSP-FS is designed so that it is extensible to operation on the Martian surface without significant redesign or modification. Extensibility from a lunar demonstration to a longer-duration Mars operation needs to be incorporated into the design of the FSP-EDU and FSP-FS. An extensible design means that the hardware systems for the lunar demonstration provide a framework and the functionality to operate on the Martian surface at a similar power output without further technology development. Since the lunar demonstration is expected to inform the operational efficacy of the FSP system for Mars, minor engineering design modifications may be required. Though the communications system and the user interface for electrical power may differ for Mars, impact to the FSP design should be minimal. Additionally, a sustainable human presence on the Moon and the Mars architecture may require multiple FSP systems connected in parallel to increase the total available power.


Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high-fidelity unit that demonstrates critical aspects of the engineering processes involved in the development of the operational unit. The EDU closely resembles the final product (hardware/software) in form, fit and function to the maximum extent possible and is built and tested so as to establish confidence that the design will function in the expected environments.

Flight System (FS) is the actual developmental end item that is intended for deployment and operations. It is subjected to formal functional and environmental acceptance testing.

Design Goals

For purposes of this RFI, BEA, in collaboration with NASA and DOE, seeks information regarding how the private sector may approach preliminary designs of the FSP system to achieve the following goals:

  • Flight System Power Output Goal: Develop the FSP system with the capability of providing uninterrupted electricity output of not less than 10 kilowatts at the interface end of a 1-kilometer cable. The FSP system should provide 120 V (direct current) at the user interface of the end of a 1-kilometer cable. BEA recommends that respondents design the FSP system to be scalable upwards to maximize power without significant design change and capable of operating as one of multiple interconnected modules as part a larger power system.

  • Flight System Mass Goal: Develop the FSP system with the goal of minimizing system mass, with a stretch goal of 2000 kg and a not-to-exceed maximum of 3500 kg. These masses should include mass growth allowances allocated per ANSI/AIAA S-120A-2015, Mass Properties Control for Space Systems. The lower mass goal permits the flight unit to be carried on a commercial lunar payload services (CLPS) lander or as part of the payload on the descent stage of the human landing system (HLS) lander. The system design needs to include a radiation shield and additional associated mass. Respondents are encouraged to include a mass of equipment list. The mass of equipment list should include a detailed mass breakdown of the FSP system to the component level. Respondents are also encouraged to design the FSP system to be capable of surviving vehicle launch and lunar landing loads as a complete flight unit.

  • Environmental Suitability Goal: The FSP system is intended to support exploration in the south polar region of the Moon. The specific region(s) of Mars are yet to be determined. The FSP-FS should accommodate the environments and surface conditions associated with both of these destinations.

  • Operational Goal: Develop the FSP system with capability of operating autonomously, with the capability of autonomous or commanded on/off cycles. Develop the FSP system to be capable of surviving a single credible failure without reducing electric power capacity by more than 50%. This design objective flows from essential power needs on the Moon or Mars following a component failure. BEA also encourages respondents to develop the FSP system for a minimum operational life of not less than 10 years at full electric power output.

  • Extensibility Goal: Develop the FSP system for direct extensibility to meet flight design needs as well as functional capabilities and modular interface requirements for operations on Mars.

  • Technology Maturation Goal: Develop the FSP preliminary design for potential transition under a separate Phase II solicitation for manufacture and construction of a FSP-EDU, capable of demonstrating all design goals for launch and lunar operations and enabling a test-qualified FSP-FS for launch readiness no later than December 31, 2026. Respondents are also encouraged to provide analysis, test data, and other supporting evidence that demonstrates the technology readiness assessment of the system for a flight demonstration.

  • Radiation Protection Goal: Identify a suite of potential solutions for the FSP system to protect human life and critical electronics from reactor-created radiation.

  • Critical Communication Goal: Develop a flight system capable of full operations from Earth.
Anticipated Program Outline

BEA may award up to three (3) different FSP preliminary designs under Phase I. BEA anticipates that Phase I will last a duration of 9 months, including a defined schedule with specific milestones of achievement. Throughout both phases of this program, awardees must present their progress such that BEA may verify specific milestones.

Phase II will consist of a second competitive procurement process, not limited to submissions from Phase I awardees. Phase II will encompass a final FSP design as well as manufacturing, construction, and ground testing of a prototype FSP-EDU. Phase II will culminate with a subsequent test-qualified FSP-FS delivered to the launch site for deployment to the Moon.

Robert Pearlman

Posts: 48563
From: Houston, TX
Registered: Nov 1999

posted 06-21-2022 10:26 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for Robert Pearlman   Click Here to Email Robert Pearlman     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
NASA Announces Artemis Concept Awards for Nuclear Power on Moon

NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are working together to advance space nuclear technologies. The agencies have selected three design concept proposals for a fission surface power system design that could be ready to launch by the end of the decade for a demonstration on the Moon. This technology would benefit future exploration under the Artemis umbrella.

The contracts, to be awarded through the DOE's Idaho National Laboratory, are each valued at approximately $5 million. The contracts fund the development of initial design concepts for a 40-kilowatt class fission power system planned to last at least 10 years in the lunar environment.

Relatively small and lightweight compared to other power systems, fission systems are reliable and could enable continuous power regardless of location, available sunlight, and other natural environmental conditions. A demonstration of such systems on the Moon would pave the way for long-duration missions on the Moon and Mars.

"New technology drives our exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond," said Jim Reuter, associate administrator for NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate. "Developing these early designs will help us lay the groundwork for powering our long-term human presence on other worlds."

Battelle Energy Alliance, the managing and operating contractor for Idaho National Laboratory, led the Request for Proposal development, evaluation, and procurement sponsored by NASA. Idaho National Laboratory will award 12-month contracts to the following companies to each develop preliminary designs:

  • Lockheed Martin of Bethesda, Maryland – The company will partner with BWXT and Creare.

  • Westinghouse of Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania – The company will partner with Aerojet Rocketdyne.

  • IX of Houston, Texas, a joint venture of Intuitive Machines and X-Energy – The company will partner with Maxar and Boeing.
"The Fission Surface Power project is a very achievable first step toward the United States establishing nuclear power on the Moon," said Idaho National Laboratory Director John Wagner. "I look forward to seeing what each of these teams will accomplish."

The Phase 1 awards will provide NASA critical information from industry that can lead to a joint development of a full flight-certified fission power system. Fission surface power technologies also will help NASA mature nuclear propulsion systems that rely on reactors to generate power. These systems could be used for deep space exploration missions.

NASA's fission surface power project is managed by the agency's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland. The power system development is funded by the Space Technology Mission Directorate's Technology Demonstration Missions program, which is located at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

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