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There are a number of considerations which determine the unique time period called the launch window from which the lunar mission is flown. These considerations are as follows. [list=1][*]Daylight launch from Kennedy Space center
[*]Launch azimuth (direction) from Kennedy Space Center restricted to 72 (degrees) to 108 (degrees) from north
[*]Translunar injection to occur over the Pacific Ocean (as opposed to the Atlantic Ocean)
[*]Low sun elevation at the lunar landing site
[*]Goldstone, California, radar coverage of the lunar landing phase
[*]Daylight earth landing in the prime recovery area.[/list][/i]
[i]The moon rotates 360 (degrees) about the earth in a near circular orbit every 27.32 days. The distance from the earth to the moon varies between 222,000 miles at the nearest point and 253,000 miles at the furthest point, distances equivalent to 28 to 32 earth diameters.
The earth revolves about the sun every 365.25 day; leap year every fourth year compensates for the small difference. The earth's orbital plane about the sun, called the ecliptic plane, is inclined 23.5 (degrees) to the earth's equator, the latter defined by the earth's rotation about the north pole.[/i]
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